An individual with true gonadal hermaphroditism has both ovarian and testicular tissue, either in the same gonad (referred to as an ovotestis) or in one ovary and one testis.
Some affected individuals have XX chromosomes, others have XY chromosomes, and others have a combination of both.
Some animal studies have suggested a link to exposure to agricultural pesticides, although this has yet to be established in human studies.
Complex hermaphroditism involves other disorders of sexual development beyond simple 46, XX and 46, XY.
An individual with 46, XY hermaphroditism has one X and one Y chromosome, as is usually seen in males, but the external genitalia are either not completely formed, or resemble those of females.
The internal sexual organs may be normal, incomplete or absent, depending on the specific case.
They may include: A child with hermaphroditism will usually require care from a multidisciplinary healthcare team to address the various needs presented.
An individual with 46, XX hermaphroditism has two XX chromosomes and the ovaries of a woman, but has external genitalia that appear to be male.
This type is usually caused by the excessive exposure of the female fetus to male hormones in the womb.
Hermaphroditism, also referred to as intersex, is a condition in which there is a discrepancy between the external and internal sexual and genital organs.
It is grouped together with other conditions as a disorder of sex development (DSD).